br In Fe O CaAl LDH L Dopa group
In [email protected]@L-Dopa group: the caspase-3 activation in control cells was less than other treatments (treatments 1–6) (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 activation in treatments 1–6 were higher com-pared with L-Dopa treatments, respectively (p < 0.05). Caspase-3
activation in treatments 5 and 6 were highest compared with all treatments of L-Dopa and [email protected] and other intragroup treatments, respectively (p < 0.05).
3.3.6. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine-123 absorbance) In most cases, in L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa groups
eventually mediate a common apoptotic pathway through the result was obtained in case of caspase-3 activation after changing the Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm). To check the change of Δφm in the treated cells, they were exposed to diﬀerent concentrations of L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa, then, Δφm was measured by Rhodamine-123 staining and colorimetric assay at 24 h after the ex-posure. Furthermore, in [email protected] group, RH-123 70-25-7 in all treatments after 24 h was similar to control treatment. In L-Dopa group: the RH-123 absorption in control cells was higher than other
Fig. 22. The eﬀects of diﬀerent concentrations of [email protected]@L-Dopa induced apoptosis in Mel-Rm cells as identified by DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining) (400×).
Viable cell: white arrow and apoptotic cell: yellow arrow. A:control: 0.0 μM, B:treatment 1: 1 μM, C:treatment 2: 2 μM, D:treatment 3: 4 μM, E:treatment 4: 8 μM, F:treatment 5: 16 μM, and G:treatment 6: 32 μM. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
The Eﬀect of L-Dopa, [email protected]@L-Dopa and [email protected] with diﬀerent concentrations (nanomollar) on the cell viability of cells.
The IC50 values of [email protected]@L-Dopa and L-Dopa in Mel-Rm cell line.
Cell line Mel-Rm cell line
It is notable that, the obtained results from culturing and incubating of the cells in nanomolar concentration of L-Dopa, [email protected]@ L-Dopa, and [email protected] showed that L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa were not induced cell death and cell cytotoxicity in
N. Shahabadi, et al.
melanoma cell lines (Table 2).
Also, the values of IC50 for L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa (50% proliferation growth inhibition) examined in these cancer cells were also diﬀerent after 24 h of treatment (Table 3). In comparison with a free drug (Fig. 17 and Table 3), the amount of IC50 for [email protected]@L-Dopa was lower than the corresponding values for free L-Dopa. Based on the obtained results, the loading of L-Dopa on the surface and in the layers of [email protected] nanoparticles, cause increase the anticancer activity of free L-Dopa.
In the present study, we have developed a novel and eﬃcient tar-geted anticancer drug delivery system based on the use of a magnetic core-shell structure of [email protected] nanospheres as a carrier for L-Dopa in the treatment of Melanoma. The structural properties of [email protected]@L-Dopa were characterizes using various techniques like XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, FT-IR, VSM, TGA, XPS, BET, and Zeta Potential analysis. According to the obtained results from the men-tioned analysis, [email protected]@L-Dopa has a uniform core-shell structure with about 120 nm in average size. It is noteworthy that the use of magnetic [email protected] can help to the accurate and easy transfer of L-Dopa to target tissue using an external magnet. This hybrid nanocarrier has a high drug loading (52 wt%) and drug encapsulation eﬃciency (71%). Also, in this drug delivery system, the drug release was sensitive to pH changes. The amount of L-Dopa release from [email protected] nanoparticles was much faster in lower pHs (98.5%) which indicate [email protected]@L-Dopa can be used eﬃciently in the cancerous cells. Therefore, this system can decrease the cytotoxic ef-fects of L-Dopa by selective L-Dopa delivery. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of this drug delivery system was investigated against Mel-Rm cell lines. The results of cytotoxicity studies showed that the loading of L-Dopa on the surface and in the layers of [email protected] nanoparticles, cause improve the anticancer activity of free L-Dopa.
The authors thank the Razi University Research Council for support of this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
 R.L. Doty, D.A. Deems, S. Stellar, Olfactory dysfunction in parkinsonism A general deficit unrelated to neurologic signs, disease stage, or disease duration, Neurology 8 (1988) 1237–1244.