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  • br In Fe O CaAl LDH L Dopa group

    2020-08-12


    In [email protected]@L-Dopa group: the caspase-3 activation in control cells was less than other treatments (treatments 1–6) (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 activation in treatments 1–6 were higher com-pared with L-Dopa treatments, respectively (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 
    activation in treatments 5 and 6 were highest compared with all treatments of L-Dopa and [email protected] and other intragroup treatments, respectively (p < 0.05).
    3.3.6. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine-123 absorbance) In most cases, in L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa groups
    eventually mediate a common apoptotic pathway through the result was obtained in case of caspase-3 activation after changing the Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm). To check the change of Δφm in the treated cells, they were exposed to different concentrations of L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa, then, Δφm was measured by Rhodamine-123 staining and colorimetric assay at 24 h after the ex-posure. Furthermore, in [email protected] group, RH-123 70-25-7 in all treatments after 24 h was similar to control treatment. In L-Dopa group: the RH-123 absorption in control cells was higher than other
    Fig. 22. The effects of different concentrations of [email protected]@L-Dopa induced apoptosis in Mel-Rm cells as identified by DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining) (400×).
    Viable cell: white arrow and apoptotic cell: yellow arrow. A:control: 0.0 μM, B:treatment 1: 1 μM, C:treatment 2: 2 μM, D:treatment 3: 4 μM, E:treatment 4: 8 μM, F:treatment 5: 16 μM, and G:treatment 6: 32 μM. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
    Table 2
    The Effect of L-Dopa, [email protected]@L-Dopa and [email protected] with different concentrations (nanomollar) on the cell viability of cells.
    Table 3
    The IC50 values of [email protected]@L-Dopa and L-Dopa in Mel-Rm cell line.
    Cell line Mel-Rm cell line
    It is notable that, the obtained results from culturing and incubating of the cells in nanomolar concentration of L-Dopa, [email protected]@ L-Dopa, and [email protected] showed that L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa were not induced cell death and cell cytotoxicity in
    N. Shahabadi, et al.
    melanoma cell lines (Table 2).
    Also, the values of IC50 for L-Dopa and [email protected]@L-Dopa (50% proliferation growth inhibition) examined in these cancer cells were also different after 24 h of treatment (Table 3). In comparison with a free drug (Fig. 17 and Table 3), the amount of IC50 for [email protected]@L-Dopa was lower than the corresponding values for free L-Dopa. Based on the obtained results, the loading of L-Dopa on the surface and in the layers of [email protected] nanoparticles, cause increase the anticancer activity of free L-Dopa.
    4. Conclusions
    In the present study, we have developed a novel and efficient tar-geted anticancer drug delivery system based on the use of a magnetic core-shell structure of [email protected] nanospheres as a carrier for L-Dopa in the treatment of Melanoma. The structural properties of [email protected]@L-Dopa were characterizes using various techniques like XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, FT-IR, VSM, TGA, XPS, BET, and Zeta Potential analysis. According to the obtained results from the men-tioned analysis, [email protected]@L-Dopa has a uniform core-shell structure with about 120 nm in average size. It is noteworthy that the use of magnetic [email protected] can help to the accurate and easy transfer of L-Dopa to target tissue using an external magnet. This hybrid nanocarrier has a high drug loading (52 wt%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (71%). Also, in this drug delivery system, the drug release was sensitive to pH changes. The amount of L-Dopa release from [email protected] nanoparticles was much faster in lower pHs (98.5%) which indicate [email protected]@L-Dopa can be used efficiently in the cancerous cells. Therefore, this system can decrease the cytotoxic ef-fects of L-Dopa by selective L-Dopa delivery. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of this drug delivery system was investigated against Mel-Rm cell lines. The results of cytotoxicity studies showed that the loading of L-Dopa on the surface and in the layers of [email protected] nanoparticles, cause improve the anticancer activity of free L-Dopa.
    Acknowledgments
    The authors thank the Razi University Research Council for support of this work.
    Disclosure statement
    The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
    References
    [8] R.L. Doty, D.A. Deems, S. Stellar, Olfactory dysfunction in parkinsonism A general deficit unrelated to neurologic signs, disease stage, or disease duration, Neurology 8 (1988) 1237–1244.